Gas applications R744 - the natural refrigerant


The ecological and cost-effective alternative to classical refrigerants

F-Gas Regulation – Phase Down of Classical Refrigerants    

With regard to the F-Gas Regulation, we have been following the 2014-2030 roadmap set by the European Commission to limit emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases, many of which have a very high global warming potential (GWP). By 2030, F-gas emissions need to have been reduced by two thirds compared to 2014. To achieve this goal, the EU Directive provides a phase-down procedure for all HFC quantities (measured in CO2 equivalents) placed on the market in the European Union. Additionally, in many new systems where less harmful alternatives are widely accepted, the use of gases with a high GWP content is prohibited. This is likely to have a major impact on accelerating the transition to innovative and climate-friendly refrigerant alternatives. There is a natural, safe and cost efficient alternative to existing synthetic refrigerants: CO2 (R744). The term R744 is usually applied when referring to CO2 used for refrigeration and air conditioning.

CO2 (R744) – The Natural Alternative

CO2 has excellent thermodynamic properties and in addition, CO2 has significant advantages compared to classical and other alternative refrigerants:

•    CO2 is non-corrosive, non-toxic and non-flammable
•    CO2 is environmentally friendly, it has no Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP=0) and a minimum Global Warming Potential (GWP=1)
•    CO2 is a quota-free-product, there are no restrictions of production, import or use in the F-Gas Regulation

Quality and Service

For most industrial carbon dioxide applications, a gas purity of 99.9% ensures the desired results. However, when CO2 is used as the R744 refrigerant, there are additional requirements. Even a slight increase in moisture content can lead to corrosion of the refrigerant circuit due to carbonic acid formation. There is also a risk of ice crystal deposits blocking the piping system and causing malfunction or serious damage to the system. Non-condensable gases (e.g. nitrogen, air) can increase the pressure in the condenser. Messer recommends a CO2 purity of 99,995% (CO2 4.5) for the use as refrigerant; in particular, the moister content must be below 5 ppm by weight.

Messer pays attention to the quality of the product both during production and along the entire supply chain. All processes comply with EN ISO 9001 quality management standards and the internal quality and safety regulations that apply to the entire Messer Group. 

Regardless of the application, compressed and liquefied gases require increased user attention. We are glad to answer all questions you might have on the application and the safe handling of CO2.

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